Python API wrapper


This library provides an SDK for the Transifex API which is located at the transifex.api package of the transifex-python library in PyPI.

It is based on a low-level library for building SDKs for {json:api} APIs located at the transifex.api.jsonapi package. If you understand how the low-level {json:api} library maps to HTTP interactions and consult the Transifex API documentation, you should be able to make use of the SDK.

This document is split between two sections: one that provides an overview of how to work with the Transifex API and one that shows how you can use transifex.api.jsonapi to build an SDK that can interact with any API that follows the {json:api}. You should read the second part if you want to troubleshoot or understand how the internals of the SDK work.

transifex.api usage

Setting up

from transifex.api import transifex_api


The auth argument should be an API token. You can generate one at

Finding things

To get a list of the organizations your user account has access to, run:


If you have access to many organizations and the first response comes paginated, you can get a list of all organizations with:

# .all returns a generator

It is highly unlikely that you will have access to so many organizations for the initial response to be paginated but the list and all methods are common to all Transifex API resource types so you might as well get used to them. If the list fits into one response, using all instead of list doesn't have any penalties.

If you want to find a specific organization, you can use the slug filter:

organization = transifex_api.Organization.filter(slug="my_org")[0]
# or
organization = transifex_api.Organization.get(slug="my_org")


get does the same thing as filter(...)[0] but raises an exception if the number of results is not 1.

Alternatively (if for example you don't know the slug but the name of the organization), you can search against all of them:

organization = None
for o in transifex_api.Organization.all():
    if == "My Org":
        organization = o

After you get an Organization instance, you can access its attributes:
# <<< 'My organization'

To get a list of projects, do:

projects = transifex_api.Project.filter(organization=organization)

However, if you look at how a project is represented in the Get project details, Organization objects have a projects relationship with a related links, so you can achieve the same thing with:

projects = organization.fetch('projects')

If you look into the List projects, you can see that a slug filter is also supported, so to find a specific project, you can do:

project = organization.fetch('projects').get(slug="my_project")

Projects also have a languages relationship. This means that you can access a project's target languages with:

languages = project.fetch('languages')

Changing attributes

Let's use what we've learned so far alongside the API documentation to find a "untranslated string slot" (the /resource_translations endpoint returns items for strings that haven't been translated yet, setting their strings field will post a translation):

language = transifex_api.Language.get(code="el")
resource = project.fetch('resources').get(slug="my_resource")
translations = transifex_api.ResourceTranslation.\
    filter(resource=resource, language=language).\
translation = translations[0]


Appending a .include to a filter will pre-fetch a relationship. In the case of ResourceTranslation, this will also fetch the source string information for the "translation slot". Again, you should consult the API documentation to see if including relationships is supported for a given API resource type.

In order to save a translation to the server, we use .save:

# We don't have to fetch the resource string because it has been included
source_string = translation.resource_string.strings['other']

translation.strings = {'other': source_string + " in greeeek!!!"}'strings')

We have to specify which fields we will be sending to the API with save's positional arguments.

Because this is a common use-case (setting attributes and immediately saving them on the server), there is a shortcut:{'other': source_string + " in greeek!!!"})

Changing relationships

Lets use projects, teams and project languages as examples:

project = transifex_api.Project.get(organization=..., slug="...")
team_1 = project.fetch('team')
team_2 = transifex_api.Team.get(slug="...")

If we want to change the project's team from team_1 to team_2, we have 2 options: = team_2'team')

# Or

This is similar to how we change attributes. The other option is:

project.change('team', team_2)

This will send a PATCH request to /projects/XXX/relationships/team to perform the change. Again, you should consult the API documentation to see
which relationships can be changed and with which methods (in this case -
changing a project's team - both methods are available).

The project -> team is a "singular relationship" (singular relationships are either one-to-one or foreign-key relationships). To change a "plural relationship", like a project's target languages, you can use the reset, add and remove methods:

language_dict = {
    language.code: language
    for language in transifex_api.Language.all()
language_a, language_b, language_c = language_dict['a'], language_dict['b'], language_dict['c']

# This will completely replace the project's target languages
# The project's languages after this will be: ['a', 'b']
project.reset('languages', [language_a, language_b])

# This will append the supplied languages to the project's target languages
# The project's languages after this will be: ['a', 'b', 'c']
project.add('languages', [language_c])

# This will remove the supplied languages from the project's target languages
# The project's languages after this will be: ['a', 'c']
project.remove('languages', [language_b])

The HTTP methods used for reset, add and remove are PATCH, POST and DELETE respectively. As always, you should consult the API documentation to see if the relationship in question is editable and which methods are supported.

Creating and deleting things

The following examples should be self-explanatory.

To create something:

organization = transifex_api.Organization.list()[0]
source_language = transifex_api.Language.list()[0]
project = transifex_api.Project.create(name="New Project",

You can see which fields are supported in the API documentation. The organization and source_language arguments are interpreted as relationships.

To delete something:


File uploads and downloads

There is code in transifex.api that automates several {json:api} interactions behind the scenes in order to help with file uploads and downloads.

In order to upload a source file to a resource, you can do:

resource = transifex_api.Resource.filter(...)[0]
content = "The new source file content"

transifex_api.ResourceStringsAsyncUpload.upload(resource, content)

In order to download a translated language file, you can do:

language = transifex_api.Language.list()[0]
url = transifex_api.ResourceTranslationsAsyncDownload.\
    download(resource=resource, language=language)
translated_content = requests.get(url).text

As always, in order to see how file uploads and downloads work in the Transifex API, you should check out the API documentation.

transifex.api.jsonapi usage

Setting up

Using transifex.api.jsonapi means creating your own API SDK for a remote service. In order to do that, you need to first define an API connection type. This is done by subclassing transifex.api.jsonapi.JsonApi:

from transifex.api.jsonapi import JsonApi

class FamilyApi(JsonApi):
   HOST = ""

Next, you have to define some API resource types and register them to the API connection type. This is done by subclassing transifex.api.jsonapi.Resource and decorating it with the connection type's register method:

from transifex.api.jsonapi import Resource

class Parent(Resource):
   TYPE = "parents"

class Child(Resource):
   TYPE = "children"

Users of your SDK can then instantiate your API connection type, providing authentication credentials and/or overriding the host, in case you want to test against a sandbox API server and not the production one:

family_api = FamilyApi(host="",

Finally the API resource types you have registered can be accessed as attributes on this API connection instance. You can either use the class's name or the API resource's type:

child = family_api.Child.get('1')
child = family_api.children.get('1')

This is enough to get you started since the library will be able to provide you with a lot of functionality based on the structure of the responses you get from the server. Make sure you define and register Resource subclasses for every type you intend to encounter, because transifex.api.jsonapi will use the API instance's registry to resolve the appropriate subclass for the items included in the API's responses.

Global API connection instances

You can configure an already created API connection instance by calling the setup method, which accepts the same keyword arguments as the constructor. In fact, JsonApi's __init__ and setup methods have been written in such a way that the following two snippets should produce an identical outcome:

kwargs = ...
family_api = FamilyApi(**kwargs)
kwargs = ...
family_api = FamilyApi()

This way, you can implement your SDK in a way that offers the option to users to either use a global API connection instance or multiple instances. In fact, this is exactly how transifex.api has been set up:

# src/transifex.api/

from transifex.api.jsonapi import JsonApi, Resource

class TransifexApi(JsonApi):
    HOST = ""

class Organization(Resource):
    TYPE = "organizations"

transifex_api = TransifexApi()
# (uses the global API connection instance)

from transifex.api import transifex_api

organization = transifex_api.Organization.get("1")
# (uses multiple custom API connection instances)

from transifex.api import TransifexApi

api_1 = TransifexApi(auth="<API_TOKEN_1>")
api_2 = TransifexApi(auth="<API_TOKEN_2>")

organization_1 = api_1.Organization.get("1")
organization_2 = api_2.Organization.get("2")


The whole logic behind this initialization process is further explained


The auth argument to JsonApi or setup can either be:

  1. A string, in which case all requests to the API server will include the Authorization: Bearer <API_TOKEN> header
  2. A callable, in which case the return value is expected to be a dictionary which will be merged with the headers of all requests to the API server
import datetime

from family_api import FamilyApi
from .secrets import KEY
from .crypto import sign

def myauth():
    return {'x-signature': sign(KEY,}

family_api = FamilyApi(auth=myauth)

Custom headers

You can supply custom HTTP headers to be sent with every request to the remote server using the headers keyword argument to the JsonApi constructor or the setup method.

from family_api import FamilyApi
family_api = FamilyApi(..., headers={'X-Application': "My-client"})



By default, collection URLs have the form /<type> (eg /children) and item URLs have the form /<type>/<id> (eg /children/1). This is also part of {json:api}'s recommendations. If you want to customize them, you need to override the get_collection_url classmethod and the get_item_url() method of the resource's subclass:

class Child(Resource):
    TYPE = "children"

    def get_collection_url(cls):
        return "/children_collection"

    def get_item_url(self):
        return f"/child_item/{}"

Getting a single resource object from the API

If you know the ID of the resource object, you can fetch its {json:api} representation with:

child = family_api.Child.get("1")

The attributes of a resource object are id, attributes, relationships, links and related. id, attributes, relationships and links have exactly the same value as in the API response.

parent = family_api.Parent.get("1")
# "1"
# {'name': "Zeus"}
# {'children': {'links': {'self': "/parent/1/relationships/children",
#                         'related': "/children?filter[parent]=1"}}}

child = family_api.Child.get("1")
# "1"
# {'name': "Hercules"}
# {'parent': {'data': {'type': "parents", 'id': "1"},
#             'links': {'self': "/children/1/relationships/parent",
#                       'related': "/parents/1"}}}

You can reload an object from the server by calling .reload():

# equivalent to
child = family_api.Child.get(



We need to talk a bit about how {json:api} represents relationships and how the transifex.api.jsonapi library interprets them. Depending on the value of a field of relationships, we consider the following possibilities. A relationship can either be:

  1. A null relationship which will be represented by a null value:

    {'type': "children",
     'id': "...",
     'attributes': { ... },
     'relationships': {
         'parent': null,  # <---
     'links': { ... }}
  2. A singular relationship which will be represented by an object with both
    data and links fields, with the data field being a dictionary:

    {'type': "children",
     'id': "...",
     'attributes': { ... },
     'relationships': {
         'parent': {'data': {'type': "parents", 'id': "..."},     # <---
                    'links': {'self': "...", 'related': "..."}},  # <---
         ... ,
     'links': { ... }}
  3. A plural relationship which will be represented by an object with a
    links field and either a missing data field or a data field which is a

    {'type': "parents",
     'id': "...",
     'attributes': { ... },
     'relationships': {
         'children': {'links': {'self': "...", 'related': "..."}},  # <---
     'links': { ... }}


    {'type': "parents",
     'id': "...",
     'attributes': { ... },
     'relationships': {
         'children': {'links': {'self': "...", 'related': "..."},    # <---
                      'data': [{'type': "children", 'id': "..."},    # <---
                               {'type': "children", 'id': "..."},    # <---
                               ... ]},                               # <---
         ... ,
     'links': { ... }}

This is important because transifex.api.jsonapi will make assumptions about the nature of relationships based on the existence of these fields.

Fetching relationships

The related field is meant to host the data of the relationships, after these have been fetched from the API. Lets revisit the last example and inspect the relationships and related fields:

parent = family_api.Parent.get("1")
# {'children': {'links': {'self': "/parent/1/relationships/children",
#                         'related': "/children?filter[parent]=1"}}}
# {}

child = family_api.Child.get("1")
# {'parent': {'data': {'type': "parents", 'id': "1"},
#             'links': {'self': "/children/1/relationships/parent",
#                       'related': "/parents/1"}}}
# {parent: <Parent: 1 (Unfetched)>}

As you can see, the parent→children related field is empty while the child→parent related field is prefilled with an "unfetched" Parent instance. This happens becaue the first one is a plural relationship while the second is a singular relationship. Unfetched means that we only know its id so far. In both cases, we don't know any meaningful data about the relationships yet.

In order to fetch the related data, you need to call .fetch() with the names of the relationships you want to fetch:

# {'parent': <Parent: 1 (Unfetched)>}
# ("1", {}, {})

child.fetch('parent')  # Now `related['parent']` has all the information
# {parent: <Parent: 1>}
# ("1",
#  {'name': "Zeus"},
#  {'children': {'links': {'self': "/parent/1/relationships/children",
#                          'related': "/children?filter[parent]=1"}}})

# {'children': [<Child: 1>, <Child: 2>]}
# ("1",
#  {'name': "Hercules"},
#  {'parent': {'data': {'type': "parents", 'id': "1"},
#              'links': {'self': "/children/1/relationships/parent",
#                        '/parents/1'}}})

Trying to fetch an already-fetched relationship will not actually trigger
another request, unless you pass force=True to .fetch().

If .fetch() is only provided with one positional argument, it will return the

parent = family_api.Parent.get("1")

# "Hercules"

# Is equivalent to:



You can access all keys in attributes and related directly on the resource
object: == child.attributes['name'] == "Hercules"
# True

This is very handy, both for reading and setting values to those fields,
however you should be careful when setting them. If the key is not already part
of attributes or relationships, the assignment will fall back to the
default operation of Python objects, which is to add the key to the __dict__

# {'id': ..., 'attributes': {'name': "Hercules"}, ...} = "Achilles"
# {'id': ..., 'attributes': {'name': "Achilles"}, ...}
#                                    ^^^^^^^^^^

child.hair_color = "red"
# {'id': ..., 'attributes': {'name': "Achilles"}, 'hair_color': "red", ...}
#                                                 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Be careful of this because the new keys will not be included in subsequent
PATCH operations to update the resource on the server. Normally you won't have
to worry about this since the API server will likely have provided all
attributes and relationships it is likely to accept in subsequent requests,
even if their value is set to null. If you definitely want to add a new field
to an object's attributes or relationships, you can always fall back to
doing so directly:

child.attributes['hair_color'] = "red"
# {'id': ..., 'attributes': {'name': "Hercules", 'hair_color': "red"}, ...}
#                                                ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Getting Resource collections

You can access a collection of resource objects using one of the list,
filter, page, include,sort, fields, extra, all and all_pages
classmethods of Resource subclass.

children = family_api.Child.list()
# [<Child: 1>, <Child: 2>, ...]

Each method does the following:

  • list returns the first page of the results

  • filter applies filters; nested filters are separated by double underscores
    (__), Django-style

    operationGET request

    Note: because it's a common use-case, using a resource object as the value
    of a filter operation will result in using its id field

    parent = family_api.Parent.get("1")
    # is equivalent to
  • page applies pagination; it accepts either one positional argument which
    will be passed to the page GET parameter or multiple keyword arguments
    which will be passed as nested page GET parameters

    operationGET request
    .page(a=1, b=2)?page[a]=1&page[b]=2

    (Note: you will probably not have to use .page yourself since the returned
    lists support pagination on their own, see below

  • include will set the include GET parameter; it accepts multiple
    positional arguments which it will join with commas (,)

    operationGET request
    .include('parent', 'pet')?include=parent,pet
  • sort will set the sort GET parameter; it accepts multiple positional
    arguments which it will join with commas (,)

    operationGET request
    .sort('age', 'name')?sort=age,name
  • fields will set the fields GET parameter; it accepts multiple positional
    arguments which it will join with commas (,)

    operationGET request
    .fields('age', 'name')?fields=age,name
  • extra accepts any keyword arguments which will be added to the GET
    parameters sent to the API

    operationGET request
  • all returns a generator that will yield all results of a paginated
    collection, using multiple requests if necessary; the pages are fetched
    on-demand, so if you abort the generator early, you will not be performing
    requests against every possible page

  • all_pages returns a generator of non-empty pages; similarly to all, pages
    are fetched on-demand (in fact, all uses all_pages internally)

All the above methods can be chained to each other. So:

# is equivalent to

# is equivalent to
family_api.Child.filter(a=1, b=2)

# is equivalent to

The collections are also lazy (Django-style). You will not actually make any
requests to the server until you try to access a collection like a list. So

def get_children(gender=None, hair_color=None):
    result = family_api.Child.list()
    if gender is not None:
        result = result.filter(gender=gender)
    if hair_color is not None:
        result = result.filter(hair_color=hair_color)
    return result

print([ for child in get_children(hair_color="red")])

will only make one request to the server during the execution of the list
comprehension in the last line.

You can also access pagination via the has_next, has_previous, next and
previous methods of a returned list (which is what all_pages and all use

All the previous methods also work on plural relationships (assuming the API
supports the applied filters etc on the endpoint specified by the related
link of the relationship).


# Will print the names of the *first page* of the children
print([ for child in parent.children])
# Will print the names of the *all* the children
print([ for child in parent.children.all()])

Prefetching relationships with include

If you use the include method on a collection retrieval or if you use the
include keyword argument on .get() (and if the server supports it), the
included values of the response will be used to prefill the relevant fields of

child = family_api.Child.get("1", include=['parent'])  # No need to fetch the parent
# "Zeus"

children = family_api.Child.list().include('parent')
[ for child in children]  # No need to fetch the parents
# ["Zeus", "Zeus", ...]

In case of a plural relationships with a list data field, if the response
supplies the related items in the included section, these too will be

parent = family_api.Parent.get("1", include=['children'])

# Assuming the response looks like:
# {'data': {'type': "parents",
#           'id': "1",
#           'attributes': ...,
#           'relationships': {'children': {'data': [{'type': "children", 'id': "1"},
#                                                   {'type': "children", 'id': "2"}],
#                                          'links': ...}}},
#  'included': [{'type': "children",
#                'id': "1",
#                'attributes': {'name': "Hercules"}},
#               {'type': "children",
#                'id': "2",
#                'attributes': {'name': "Achilles"}}]}

[ for child in parent.children]  # No need to fetch
# ["Hercules", "Achilles"]

Getting single resource objects using filters

Appending .get() to a collection will ensure that the collection is of size 1
and return the one resource instance in it. If the collection's size isn't 1,
it will raise a transifex.api.jsonapi.DoesNotExist or
transifex.api.jsonapi.MultipleObjectsReturned exception accordingly (both are
subclasses of transifex.api.jsonapi.NotSingleItem).

child = family_api.Child.filter(name="Bill").get()

The Resource's .get() classmethod, which we covered before, also accepts
keyword arguments, if a positional id argument isn't used. Calling it this
way, will apply the filters and use the collection's .get() method on the

child = family_api.Child.get(name="Bill")
# is equivalent to
child = family_api.Child.filter(name="Bill").get()

Note: The Resource's .get() classmethod accepts an include keyword
argument as well, so be careful of naming conflicts if you want to use a filter
called 'include'

# Don't do this
family_api.Child.get(name="Bill", include="parent")
# equivalent to

# Do this instead
child = family_api.Child.filter(name="Bill", include="parent").get()


Saving changes

After you change some attributes or relationships, you can call .save() on an
object, which will trigger a PATCH request to the server. Because usually the
server includes immutable fields with the response (creation timestamps etc),
you don't want to include all attributes and relationships in the request. You
can specify which fields will be sent with:

  • .save()'s positional arguments, or
  • the EDITABLE class attribute of the Resource subclass
child = family_api.Child.get("1") += " the Great"'name')

# or

class Child(Resource):
    TYPE = "children"
    EDITABLE = ['name']

child = family_api.Child.get("1") += " the Great"

Because setting values right before saving is a common use-case, .save() also
accepts keyword arguments. These will be set on the resource object, right
before the actual saving:"Hercules")
# is equivalent to = "Hercules"'name')

Creating new resources

Calling .save() on an object whose id is not set will result in a POST
request which will (attempt to) create the resource on the server.

parent = family_api.Parent.get("1")
child = family_api.Child(attributes={'name': "Hercules"},
              relationships={'parent': parent})

After saving, the object will have the id returned by the server, plus any
other server-generated attributes and relationships (for example, creation

There is a shortcut for the above, called .create()

parent = family_api.Parent.get("1")
child = family_api.Child.create(attributes={'name': "Hercules"},
                     relationships={'parent': parent})

Note: for relationships, you can provide either a resource instance, a
"Resource Identifier" (the 'data' value of a relationship object) or an entire
relationship from another resource. So, the following are equivalent:

# Well, almost equivalent, the first example will trigger a request to fetch
# the parent's data from the server
child = family_api.Child.create(attributes={'name': "Hercules"},
                                relationships={'parent': family_api.Parent.get("1")})
child = family_api.Child.create(attributes={'name': "Hercules"},
                                relationships={'parent': family_api.Parent(id="1")})
child = family_api.Child.create(attributes={'name': "Hercules"},
                                relationships={'parent': {'type': "parents": 'id': "1"}})
child = family_api.Child.create(attributes={'name': "Hercules"},
                                relationships={'parent': {'data': {'type': "parents": 'id': "1"}}})

This way, you can reuse a relationship from another object when creating,
without having to fetch the relationship:

new_child = family_api.Child.create(attributes={'name': "Achilles"},
                                    relationships={'parent': old_child.parent})
Magic kwargs

When making new (unsaved) instances, or when you create instances on the server
with .create(), you can supply any keyword argument apart from id,
attributes, relationships, etc and they will be interpreted as attributes
or relationships. Anything that looks like a relationship will be interpreted
as such while everything else will be interpreted as an attribute.

Things that are interpreted as relationships are:

  • Resource instances
  • Resource identifiers - dictionaries with 'type' and 'id' fields
  • Relationship objects - dictionaries with a single 'data' field whose value is
    a resource identifier


# is equivalent to
family_api.Child(attributes={'name': "Hercules"})

family_api.Child(parent={'type': "parents", 'id': "1"})
# is equivalent to
family_api.Child(relationships={'parent': {'type': "parents", 'id': "1"}})

# is equivalent to
family_api.Child(relationships={'parent': family_api.Parent(id="1")})

If you are worried about naming conflicts, for example if you want to have a
relationship called 'attributes', an attribute that looks like a relationship
and an attribute called 'id', you should fall back to using 'attributes' and
'relationships' directly.

# Don't do this
child = family_api.Child(attributes={'type': "attributes", 'id': "1"},
                         stats={'type': "stats", 'id': "2"},
# {'type': "children",
#  'attributes': {'type': "attributes", 'id': "1"},
#  'relationships': {'stats': {'data': {'type': "stats", 'id': "2"}}},
#  'id': "3"}

# Do this instead
child = family_api.Child(relationships={'attributes': {'type': "attributes", 'id': "1"}}
                         attributes={'stats': {'type': "stats", 'id': "2"}, 'id': "3"})
# {'type': "children",
#  'attributes': {'stats': {'type': "stats", 'id': "2"},
#                 'id': "3"},
#  'relationships': {'attributes': {'data': {'type': "attributes", 'id': "1"}}}}

Note: .to_dict() returns the {json:api} representation of the Resource
instance, ie what the payload to the server would be if we called .save() on

Client-generated IDs

Since .save() will issue a PATCH request when invoked on objects that have an
ID, if you want to supply your own client-generated ID during creation, you
have to use .create(), which will always issue a POST request.

family_api.Child(attributes={'name': "Hercules"}).save()
# POST: {data: {type: "children", attributes: {name: "Hercules"}}}

family_api.Child(id="1", attributes={'name': "Hercules"}).save()
# PATCH: {data: {type: "children", id: "1", attributes: {name: "Hercules"}}}

family_api.Child.create(attributes={'name': "Hercules"})
# POST: {data: {type: "children", attributes: {name: "Hercules"}}}

family_api.Child.create(id="1", attributes={'name': "Hercules"})
# POST: {data: {type: "children", id: "1", attributes: {name: "Hercules"}}}
# ^^^^


Deleting happens simply by calling .delete() on an object. After deletion,
the object will have the same data as before, except its id will be set to
None. This happens in case you want to delete an object and instantly
re-create it, with a different ID.

child = family_api.Child.get("1")

# Will create a new child with the same name and parent as the previous one'name', 'parent') in (None, "1")
# False

Editing relationships

Singular relationships

Changing a singular relationship can happen in two ways (this also depends on
what the server supports).

child = family_api.Child.get("1")

child.parent = new_parent'parent')

# or

child.change('parent', new_parent)

The first one will send a PATCH request to /children/1 with a body of:

{"data": {"type": "children",
          "id": "1",
          "relationships": {"parent": {"data": {"type": "parents", "id": "2"}}}}}

The second one will send a PATCH request to the URL indicated by
child.relationships['parent']['links']['self'], which will most likely be
something like /children/1/relationships/parent, with a body of:

{"data": {"type": "parents", "id": "2"}}

If you want to use the first way, you could also change the relationship

child.relationships['parent'] = {'data': {'type': "parents", 'id': "2"}}'parent')

However, this poses a danger. relationships and related are supposed to be
in sync with each other and, if you change one or the other directly, they may
stop being in sync which may generate some confusion later. A successful
.save() will rewrite the relationships so you should be OK. However, if you
want to be safe, you should use the .set_related() method to edit

child.set_related('parent', family_api.Parent(id="2"))

or use the relationship's name shortcut:

child.parent = family_api.Parent(id="2")

(the shortcut uses .set_related() during assignment internally anyway)

Plural relationships

For changing plural relationships, you can use one of the add, remove and
reset methods:

parent = family_api.Parent.get("1")
parent.add('children', [new_child, ...])
parent.remove('children', [existing_child, ...])
parent.reset('children', [child_a, child_b, ...])

These will send a POST, DELETE or PATCH request respectively to the URL
indicated by parent.relationships['children']['links']['self'], which will
most likely be something like /parents/1/relationships/children, with a body

{"data": [{"type": "children", "id": "1"},
          {"type": "children", "id": "2"},
          {"...": "..."}]}

Similar to the case when we were instantiating objects with relationships, the
values passed to the above methods can either be resource objects, "resource
identifiers" or entire relationship objects:

parent.add('children', [family_api.Child.get("1"),
                        {'type': "children", 'id': "3"},
                        {'data': {'type': "children", 'id': "4"}}])

This way, you can easily use another object's plural relationship:

parent_a = family_api.Parent.get('1')
parent_b = family_api.Parent.get('2')

# Make sure 'parent_b' has the same children as 'parent_a'
parent_b.reset('children', list(parent_a.fetch('children').all()))

Bulk operations

Resource subclasses provide the bulk_delete, bulk_create and bulk_update
classmethods for API endpoints that support such operations. The arguments to
these class methods are quite flexible. Consult the docstrings of each method
for their types or see the following examples.

Furthermore, bulk_update accepts a fields keyword argument with the
attributes and relationships of the objects it will attempt to update.

# Bulk-create
   family_api.Child(attributes={'name': "One"}, relationships={'parent': parent}),
   {'attributes': {'name': "Two"}, 'relationships': {'parent': parent}},
   ({'name': "Three"}, {'parent': parent}),

# Bulk-update
child_a = family_api.Child.get("a")
child_a.married = True

    {'id': "b", 'attributes': {'married': True}},
    ("c", {'married': True}), "d"],

# Bulk delete
child_a = family_api.Child.get("a")
family_api.Child.bulk_delete([child_a, {'id': "b"}, "c"])

parent = family_api.Parent.get("1")

For more details, see our
bulk oprations {json:api} profile.

Form uploads, redirects

If an endpoint accepts other content-types apart from
application/vnd.api+json during creation (most likely a multipart/form-data
for file uploads), you can perform such requests using the .create_with_form
classmethod. The keyword arguments you provide will be passed to the requests
library, giving you complete control over the request you want to perform.

According to {json:api}'s recommendations, an endpoint may return a
303-redirect response. If that's the case for a .get() or .reload() call,
the object's id, attributes, links, relationships and related
attributes will be empty. What will be there is a redirect attribute set to
the response's Location header's value. Calling .follow() on such an object
will retrieve that location and process the response using the appropriate

Given these two mechanisms, here is how you might go about performing a
source file upload
in Transifex API:

class TxResource(Resource)
    TYPE = "resources"

class ResourceStringsAsyncUpload(Resource)
    TYPE = "resource_strings_async_uploads"

class ResourceString(Resource)
    TYPE = "resource_strings"

transifex_api = TransifexApi(...)

resource = transifex_api.TxResource.get(...)
with open(...) as f:
    upload = transifex_api.ResourceStringsAsyncUpload.create_with_form(
        files={'content': f},
while True:
    if upload.redirect:
        strings = upload.follow()